Latest Posts

Basic Steps Of PCB Fabrication

PCB fabrication consists of several steps. Once you have created the board design, you may go to us to start the fabrication process.

To get started, you may obtain a free quote by filling out our online form or by sending us the following details:

• BOM (Bill of Materials)

• Gerber Files/Assembly Drawing

• Pick and Place Data

• Lead Time and Quantity Desired

PCBWe will contact you shortly regarding your quote. We can typically send you a TurnKey quote within the day (if we receive your request before 11 a.m. CST). Our Full TurnKey feature is the fastest way to get a quote and we are the first in the industry to offer this to our customers. With our online quote system, you can receive your quote within a few minutes of uploading your BOM.

If you don’t have an accomplished board design yet, here are some steps you can follow to create one before proceeding to PCB fabrication.

You can apply these steps if you are using PCB software in creating your design:

1. Capture the schematic diagram through an EDA (electronic design automation) tool.

2. Determine the template and dimensions of the board based on the required case and circuitry of the board.

3. Identify the locations of the heat sinks and other components.

4. Decide on the board’s layer stack. This ranges from 1-10 layers depending on the complexity of the project. You also need to decide on the power planes and grounds. Power planes are the equivalent of ground planes and act as AC signal grounds while supplying DC power to each of the circuit that is mounted on the board.

Printed circuit boards

5. Line impedance is established using the thickness of the routing copper and dielectric layer, as well as the width of the trace. The separation of the traces is also considered in case there is a discrepancy with the signals.

6. Place the electronic parts. Geometry and thermal factors are considered to place the components in appropriate locations.

7. Signal traces are then routed, and the software will usually generate ground plane and power connections and clearances automatically.

8. Gerber files are created, so you can use them in manufacturing.

The Fabrication Process
Following are the basic steps of PCB fabrication:
PCB CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing)

The manufacturing process begins by generating data from the software, including IPC-D-356 netlist Gerber drill files and layer images, and component information. The Gerber files are not directly used on the fabrication equipment, but are always scanned into the CAM, which then performs these functions:

• Input the fabrication data

• Verify the data

• Check for any distortion in the process and compensate it

• Group PCBs onto larger boards (panelization)

• Apply digital tools, including drill files, electrical test files, legend image, data for automated optical inspection, solder resist image and copper patterns.


Panelization is a process wherein PCBs are grouped together, so you can place them on a larger board, which is the panel. There are two main types of panel, namely, assembly panels (also referred to as “arrays”) and bare board panels. The panel usually consists of a single board design, but in some occasions, it is possible to mix multiple designs on the same panel.

Eventually, the panel is split into individual boards – a process called “depanelling.” The separation of individual boards is done by using routing or drilling perforations along the borders of each circuit.

Copper Patterning

Pcb fabricationThe pattern in the CAM system is replicated on a mask on the copper-foil PCB layers. It is followed by the etching process that removes unnecessary copper on the board. This step is important to create faultless boards during the entire PCB fabrication process. Copper patterning methods include:

• Silkscreen printing – protective masks are created by using etch-resistant inks.

• Photoengraving – the coating of UV-sensitive photo resist is removed using a developer and photo mask. This process creates a photo resist mask.

• Laser resist vaporization – black paint is sprayed onto the copper-clad laminate. The laser scans the PCB and vaporizes the paint on parts where a resist is not

• PCB milling – the copper foil is milled away from the substrate using a 2 or 3-axis mechanical milling tool. A board milling machinery (also called PCB Prototyper) works in the same way as a plotter. The host software controls the positioning of the mill head and sends commands to the milling machine.

Choosing a patterning method depends on the quantity of boards that you wish to produce during PCB fabrication. Silkscreen printing and photoengraving are usually used for large volumes, while laser resist vaporization and PCB milling are used for smaller production of PCBs.

PCB fabrication is a multi-step process that is mostly carried by machines. PCB Fabrication are prepared and ready to deliver the finest quality items that our clients have generally expected.

HCG Diet Drops Side Effects to Look Out For

The HCG diet may be effective to some people. After all, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy, subdues the appetite for food. It is believed to trigger rapid weight loss with the help of several phases of a controlled diet as well as the advantages attached to the hormone itself. You might want to try the HCG diet drops but be wary that they are associated with the following side effects:

Headache and Nausea

headachAs the HCG produces early pregnancy symptoms, be prepared for headaches and nausea. These are symptoms that have sent some pregnant women to their beds even if they needed to go to work. So, it is a big deal. The nausea may be caused either by the HCG or the 500 calorie a day diet that comes together with the hormone.


Just like a newly pregnant woman suffering from complexion problems, you may also experience some acne and rashes. Be prepared to feel like a teenager again. While HCG diet drops can make you slim down and feel sexy, you may also feel just a little awkward once they wreak havoc on your skin. However, not all pregnant women break out. You never know if you will end up one of the lucky ones.


HCG may possibly cause cramping along your legs. If you had ever been pregnant, remember waking up in the middle of the night with your leg stiff and hurting? You might also experience something as serious as that, or you may just feel mild cramping, more associated with walking.


ConstipationUnfortunately, pregnancy comes with some uncomfortable symptoms. One of them is constipation. The HCG hormone itself can cause the constipation. The low calorie intake may be the other cause. After all, how would you feel if you are only eating less than half of your recommended daily intake? You will probably feel dizzy during the first few days, if not for the whole diet period.

Swollen breasts

HCG diet drops may cause breasts to swell for both men and women. This may be welcomed by some women, if they can handle the added discomfort. However, men may generally not like their breasts getting swollen for any reason.

Thinning hair

During pregnancy, some women experience hair loss. The hair regrows after the worst of the pregnancy hormone symptoms have died down. HCG users for diet purposes may also experience the thinning of hair. For those who are already suffering from thin hair, this may mean trouble.

Irregular heartbeat or palpitations

Irregular heartbeat Aside from the more obvious pregnancy related symptoms, HCG can also cause irregular heartbeat or palpitations. This means to say that those who already had problems with heart disease or have heart conditions may take necessary precautions before using the hormone as a means of speeding up weight loss. During the HCG diet weight loss, the body is subjected to additional stress. The body consumes and burns fat and calories at faster speeds than usual in order to create the desired weight loss results.

Gallstone formations

There are other side effects related to the HCG intake. One of these other effects is gallstone formations.

There may be other symptoms out there that could discourage you from taking HCG diet drops. The above are just some of the more common. If you do decide to proceed with the supplement then you do have to prepare yourself for the side effects. Maybe you could buy low fat crackers for the nausea, use hot pads for the pain, perform exercises to relieve your back and legs, and so on. There are ways in which you can live with the symptoms. If not then you will have to entertain a different way of losing weight.